BANAT


BANAT
BANAT, region in the southwestern part of Romania which for many years was regarded as belonging administratively to Transylvania, though it also benefited from an independent administration in the framework of the medieval Transylvanian principality. It was inhabited for many centuries by Romanians, Hungarians, Germans (Swabians), Serbs, and Jews. The languages spoken there were German and Hungarian as the official languages and other vernacular languages.   The region is still considered to be a classical multicultural one. The Jewish population of the region belonged to two principal Jewish groups, the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim, who coexisted under satisfactory conditions. However, the hapsburg authorities saw in the Jews of the region a certain danger because of the privileged relations they had with the Turks in the Ottoman Empire, who were contending for the region. After 1867 there was a degree of competition between the Austrians and the Hungarians in the two-headed empire over who would better succeed in assimilating their Jews, a situation which had consequences for the Jews of Banat as the competing parties tried to Germanize and Hungarize them, respectively. After 1919, with the dismemberment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Banat became part of Greater Romania, which posed a language problem as most Jews did not speak the language. After the unification of Banat (as part of historical Transylvania) with Romania the region lost many of its multicultural specificities and a certain diversification set in. With the majority of Germans and Jews leaving the region under the Communist regime of Ceausescu, it underwent the most significant changes in its multinational history. (Paul Schveiger (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • banat — banat …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • bănat — BĂNÁT, (3) bănaturi, s.n. (reg.) 1. Stare de durere sufletească, de jale, de tristeţe, de părere de rău. 2. Supărare, necaz, ciudă. ♢ expr. A nu i fi cuiva cu bănat= (ca formulă de politeţe) a nu lua în nume de rău rugămintea sau întrebarea cuiva …   Dicționar Român

  • BANAT — BANA Région située au sud est de la plaine hongroise, à proximité du défilé des Portes de Fer par où le Danube perce l’arc carpato balkanique. Sa vocation de passage et de carrefour utilisée dès l’époque romaine lui a valu bien des vicissitudes… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • banat — BANÁT, banate, s.n. Provincie sau ţinut administrat de un ban2. – Ban2 + suf. at. cf. lat. med. b a n a t u s. Trimis de paula, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  banát (ţinut, dregătorie) s. n., pl. banáte …   Dicționar Român

  • Banat — Ban at, n. [Cf. F. & G. banat. See {Ban} a warden.] The territory governed by a ban. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Banat — Banat, ist jetzt die Serbische Wojewodschaft u. Temeser Banat …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Banat — Banāt, eine von einem Ban regierte Grenzprovinz, insbes. das sog. Temeser B., das, die Komitate Torontal, Temes und Krassó umfassend, 1849 mit der Woiwodina zu einem besondern österr. Kronland (»Serbische Woiwodina und Temeser Banat«) vereinigt… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Banāt — (Bansag), 1) sonst der von einem Ban regierte Grenzbezirk, jetzt Name für 2) das Königreich Kroatien (s.d.) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Banāt — (ungar. Bánság, s. Karte »Ungarn«) hieß in Ungarn jede Grenzprovinz, über die ein Bau (s. d.) herrschte. Nach den Türkenkriegen bestand nur noch ein B., das Temesvárer, das diese Benennung nach dem Passarowitzer Frieden erhielt, ohne je einen Bau …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Banat — Banat, eigentlich der von einem Ban verwaltete Gränzbezirk, speciell die Landschaft Ungarns, bestehend aus den Gespanschaften Bacs Bodrogh, Torontal, Temes und Krasso, seit dem 18. Nov. 1849 die »Woiwodina Serviens und Temeser B.« bildend,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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